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Security, Fire & Building Automation System Integration by Jayandran Mohan

Wednesday, September 21

Introduction:

 

Integrated Building Management System (IBMS) is  a total integrated solution which encompasses BMS for controlling and monitoring HVAC, Plumbing, Fire Fighting, Electrical Systems, Door Access and Security system based on open system. The integration can be done in the following types like Proprietary Integration, Front-end Integration and Open integration. The building management system composed of following elements.

 

•Building Automation System   - HVAC (Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning)

•Life Safety   - Fire Alarm & Fighting System

•Security System - Closed-circuit television (CCTV) & Video Surveillance

 

Apart from this the following elements can also be integrated like Infrastructure, Illumination (lighting) control, Electric power control, Access control, Lifts, elevators, Plumbing and other engineering systems. The primary benefits of IBMS are, Data is consolidated onto a single system
to improve reporting, information management and decision-making. Integrating and managing the HVAC, energy, security, digital video and life safety applications from a single workstation allows facility-wide insight and control for better performance. Increased operational savings - Efficient resource deployment can result in reduced operational costs, empowering operators, simplifying training and decreasing false alarms. Energy efficient - Real-time view into facility operations and deep trend analysis provide data-driven insight to optimize your energy management strategies and minimize operational costs.

 

Flexibility to grow and expand - The powerful combination of open systems protocols and a scalable platform means the BMS can help support growth and expansion of the system in the future. Reduced risk - Strategic mobile or desktop control, exceptional alarm management and integrated security solutions helps to see the big picture, helping to speed up response time and mitigate risks for the property, people and business. Intelligent reporting - Comprehensive reporting with functionality for customizable reports delivers greater transparency into system history and promotes compliance. The other secondary benefits includes possibility of individual room control, increased staff productivity, effective monitoring and targeting of energy consumption, improved plant reliability and life, effective response to HVAC -  related complaints, Save time and money during the maintenance, early detection of problems or service work easy. In this article the prime focus has given on Building Automation System (BAS), Fire and Security Systems Integration, Building Automation System.

 

Building Automation System (BAS) is the automatic centralized control of a building's heating, ventilation and air conditioning, lighting and other systems through a building management system or building automation system. The objectives of building automation are improved occupant comfort, efficient operation of building systems, and reduction in energy consumption and operating costs, and improve life cycle of utilities. The Building Automation System (BAS) core functionality is to keep building climate within a specified range, light rooms based on an occupancy schedule, monitor performance and device failures in all systems and provide malfunction alarms. Automation systems reduce building energy and maintenance costs compared to a non-controlled building. Typically they are financed through energy and insurance savings and other savings associated with pre-emptive maintenance and quick detection of issues. A building controlled by a BAS is often referred to as an intelligent building or "smart building". Commercial and industrial buildings have historically relied on robust proven protocols like BACnet. Almost all multi-story green buildings are designed to accommodate a BAS for the energy, air and water conservation characteristics. Electrical device demand response is a typical function of a BAS, as is the more sophisticated ventilation and humidity monitoring required of "tight" insulated buildings.

 

BACnet, short for building automation control network, is a data communication protocol for building automation and control networks. BACnet is both an international (ISO) and ANSI standard for interoperability between cooperating building automation devices. Most green buildings also use as many low-power DC devices as possible, typically integrated with power over Ethernet wiring, so by definition always accessible to a BAS through the Ethernet connectivity.

 

BAS Controllers are purpose-built computers with input and output capabilities. These controllers come in a range of sizes and capabilities to control devices commonly found in buildings and to control sub-networks of controllers.

 

Inputs allow a controller to read temperatures, humidity, pressure, current flow, air flow, and other essential factors. The outputs allow the controller to send command and control signals to slave devices, and to other parts of the system. Inputs and outputs can be either digital or analogue. Digital outputs are also sometimes called discrete depending on manufacturer. Controllers used for building automation can be grouped in 3 categories. Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), System/Network controllers, and Terminal Unit controllers. However an additional device can also exist in order to integrate 3rd party systems (i.e. a stand-alone AC system) into a central Building automation system).

 

Fire Alarm System

Most fire alarm systems on the market today have the capability to output fire alarm signals over BACnet protocols. This is accomplished via a BACnet gateway that allows the fire alarm system to output signals to third-party equipment as BACnet objects. The third-party equipment can be configured to read and react to data received from the gateway. In order to ensure life safety is not impacted by any integrated non-fire system, a listed barrier gateway, integral with or attached to each control unit or group of control units, as appropriate, must be provided to prevent the other systems from interfering with or controlling the fire alarm system.

 

The BACnet interface is a standalone piece of fire alarm equipment, so it is constantly online and goes offline only if it loses both primary and backup power, or if it is being serviced. Therefore, there is no downtime or signal restoration necessary when the fire alarm system is reset. If any of the fire alarm points that are being supervised by the gateway change state at any time, the BACnet gateway will automatically change the status of the BACnet objects associated with those points.

 

Integrated Security System

Integrated Security System (ISS) has developed for remote monitoring, interior security and perimeter security and also for high level integration with Building Management System (BMS). The infrastructure of ISS is designed basing on Ethernet TCP/IP, it's open industrial protocol of LAN/WAN 10/100BaseT and allows to use existing cable system. This gives fast response speed of the system, emergency updates and data exchange, transfer large video files as well as the interface between the servers and request other subsystems. ISS is the integration of Access Control System,
CCTV System, Intrusion alarm system, Guard tour control system.

Access control system is one of the most important components of the ISS offers the following benefits: Asset protection: by specifying the in and out of employees and customers. Reduced cost of security: by improving the control of the unit, provide a safe environment: work environment provides comfort and safety to increase labour productivity. CCTV system is a remote monitoring system with high security. The main purpose of the camera system is used for monitoring, tracking areas need protection as the main entrance, the staircase areas and elevators, the server room, a room need high-level safety protection as storage room, reading room, equipment room,.
Even if no direct security staff monitoring. Camera System not only allows the local area but also for monitoring, tracking, video streaming through the wide area network LAN, WAN, Internet.

 

Conclusion

Due to the consistent and continuous growth in technologies mainly artificial intelligent systems, the work places became very comfortable to work with. By utilizing these advanced technologies the output can be increased with the controlled operation cost. Integrated Building Management system controls the maintenance cost, efficient and proactive usage of electricity and thermal energy, efficient fire control and proper security monitoring. Though the cost of such equipment’s to make a building artificially intelligent is a costly means, due to increase in demand of such systems the cost will become affordable as more and more builders will be using such systems in future.

 

References:

1. VTT Building and Transport, Mervi Himanen,

2. Building Automation Systems and Fire/Life Safety, Jack Smith

3. BMS and Integration, Thomas Mcilhatton

4. BMS and Security System, GTC Manual


🔀October 2017